EMANUEL KAKAOUNAKIS Essay

Published: 2021-06-29 01:45:59
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CHAPTER 7COGNITION & LANGUAGEHUBBLE TELESCOPE-PROBLEM SOLVING-COGNITION PSYCHOLOGY-COGNITION-THINKING & REASONING-LANGUAGETHINKING-ONLY HUMANS CAN CONTEMPLATE, ANALYZE, RECOLLECT OR PLAN-THINKING= THE MANIPULATION OF MENTAL REPRESENTATION OF INFO-REPRESENTATION= WORD, VISUAL IMAGE, SOUND OR OTHER DATA-REPRESENTATIONS TRANSFORM INTO A DIFFERENT FORM TO ALLOW PROBLEM SOLVING-WE DO NOT REALLY KNOW HOW THIS HAPPENS-WE DO UNDERSTAND FUNDEMENTAL ELEMENTSMENTAL IMAGES-NOT JUST VISUAL BUT AUDITORY AS WELL AS OTHER SENSES-HAVE MANY OF THE PROPERTIES OF THE ACTUAL OBJECT OR EVENT-WE ARE ABLE TO MANIPULATE THE VISUAL IMAGE OF AN OBJECT-CAN BE USED TO IMPROVE VARIOUS SKILLS-BASKET BALL TRAINING-REASERCH INDICATES THAT IT WORKS-PIANO LESSONS, THREE GROUPS, SIMILAR BRAIN SCANSCONCEPTS-ORGANIZE PHENOMENA INTO SIMPLE CATEGORIES-CLASSIFY NEW EXPIERIENCE ACCORDING TO PAST EXPIERIENCE-CAR, MAKE AND MODEL-INFLUENCE OUR BEHAVIOR, WHAT IS APPROPRIATE-EARLY REASERCH, CLEARLY DEFINED SET OF FEATURES FOR EACH CATEGORY, WITHOUT FEATURES OBJECT DID NOT FIT-MORE RELEVENT TO OUR LIVES ARE MORE AMBITIOUS, DIFFICULT TO DEFINE-THINK OF AMBIGUOUS CONCEPTS WE THINK OF AN EXAMPLE-EXAMPLE= PROTOTYPES, EXAMPLES OF CONCEPTS THAT MOST PEOPLE WILL AGREE-ALLOWS US TO THINK ABOUT THE WORLDJUDGEMENTS-WASH HANDS 20X PER DAY-DOCTOR OR MENTAL PATIENT-FRAME WORK WE EXPIERIENCE THE BEHAVIOR-CONCEPTS ALLOW US TO DRAW APPROPRIATE CONCLUSIONSREASONING-PROCESS BY WHICH INFORMATION IS USED TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS AND MAKE DECISIONS DEDUCTIVE-DRAW INFERENCES FROM A SET OF ASSUMPTIONS THAT ARE TRUE-SYLOGISM-PREMISE CAN BE INNACURATE-EVEN IF THE LOGIC IS CORRECT THE PREMISE CAN BE WRONG-EVEN IF LOGIC IS NOT SOUND PEOPLE WILL BELIVE IT-CULTURE PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLEINDUCTIVE-USING A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE WE MAKE GENERAL RULES-SHERLOCK HOLMES, SPECIFIC CLUES, INFER THE CRIMINAL-WE ALL USE INDUCTIVE REASONINGMENTAL SHORT CUTS-ALOGRITHM, RULE IF FOLLOWED WILL GUARANTEE A SOLUTION, WE MAY NOT UNDERSTAND WHY, MATH FORMULAS-HEURISTIC, A RULE OF THUMB, MAY BRING ABOUT A SOLUTION BUT NO GUARENTEEHEURISTIC-CAN BACKFIRE-REPRESENTATATIVE OF HEURISTIC, JUDGE PEOPLE ACCORDING TO A CATEGORY, LEAD TO PREJUDICE-MURDER VS DISEASE PLANE VS AUTOPROBLEM SOLVING-TOWER OF HANOI PUZZLE-HOW DO WE SOLE LIFES SIMPLE DAY TO DAY PROBLEMS-THREE MAJOR STEPS -PREPARATION-PRODUCTION OF SOLUTIONS-EVALUATIONS OF EACH SOLUTIONPREPARATION-UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM, ANY RESTRICTIONS, WELL DEFINED, MATH OR ILL DEFINED PROBLEMS, PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST-DEFINED, WELL DEFINE DINFORMATION, JUDGEMENT STRAIGHT FORWARDTYPES OF PROBLEMS-ARRANGEMENT, GROUP OF ELEMENTS MUST BE ARRANGED TO SATISFY CRITERIA, JIG SAW PUZZLE-INDUCING STRUCTURE, IDENTIFY THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ELEMENTS, CONSTRUCT A NEW RELATIONSHIP-TRANSFORMATION, CHANGE AN INITIAL STATE USING A SERIES OF METHODS-ANY PROBLEM INITIAL STAGE OF UNDERSTANDING IS CRITICAL TO PROBLEM SOLVING-FILTER OUT UNIMPORTANT INFORMATION TO SIMPLIFY TASKS-CRITICAL HOW WE REPRESENT THE PROBLEM TO OUSELEVES AND THEN ORGANIZE THE INFORMATION-PRODUCTION, RETRIEVE SOLUTION FROM LONG TERM MEMORY-TRIAL & ERROR, MOST PRIMITIVE METHOD, COULD SPEND A LIFE TIME & NOT FIND SOLUTION-MEANS AND ANALYSIS, HEURISTIC ONLY WORK IF THERE IS A DIRECT SOLUTION-SUBGOALS, HEURISTIC, DIVIDE PROBLEM INTO STEPS, TOWER OF HANOI-NOT ALL PROBLEMS CAN BE DIVIDED OR TOO COMPLICATED-INSIGHT, SUDDEN COMPREHENSION NOT A STEP BY STE PROCESS-WOLFGANG KOHLER, 1927, CHIMPS-PRIOR EXPERIENCE TRIAL & ERROR ARE PREREQUISITES FOR INSIGHTJUDGEMENTS-FINAL STEP OF THE PROCESS-CLEAR SOLUTION, MATH PROBLEM-IF NOT CONCRETE, MAKE A JUDGEMENT-WE ARE NOT ALWAYS THE BEST JUDGE OF OUR WORK, INFLUENCED BY OUR PAST EXPERIENCE-CREATE OBSTACLES, BIASESIMPEDIMENTS TO PROBLEM SOLVING-DIFFICULT PROBLEM BECAUSE OF PRESENTATION-THE PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM CAN EFFECT THE EASE OF SOLUTION-WE ALL THINK ALONG A LOGICAL SEQUENCE TO SOLVE A PROBLEMFUNCTIONAL FLEXEDNESS-CANDLE PROBLEM, THOUGHT OF THE BOX AS ONLY AS A CONTAINER-PEN, LADIES HOSIERY-MENTAL SET, DIFFICULTY TH #6, IF PRESENTED FIRST YOU WOULD HAVE KNOW PROBLEM-ID PROBLEM 9 DOTSINACCURATE EVALUATION OF SOLUTIONS-THREE MILE ISLAND, FACULTY MONITOR, EVEN WHEN SECOND MONIOR READS MELT DOWN-CONFORMATION BIAS, EFFORT TO RETHINK A PROBLEM, HUMANS ARE CRAZYCREATIVITY-WE CAN GIVE EXAMPLES BUT NOT STUDY ITS PARTS, CAN STUDY SOME FACTORS-DIVERGENT THINKING, GENERATE UNUSUAL BUT APPROPRIATE SOLUTIONS-CONVERGENT THINKING-WILLINGNESS TO TAKE RISKS, HIGH PAY OFF OR HIGH EMBARASSMENT-CONGITIVE COMPLEXITY, PREFERENCE FOR INTRICATE & ELABURATE, COMPLEX THINKING PATTERNSLANGUAGE-SYSTEMATIC MEANINGFUL ARRANGEMENT OF SYMBOLS-LEWIS CARROLL NONSENSE POEM-CONGNITIVE ABILITY NECESSARY FOR COMMUNICATION-LINK BETWEEN HOW WE THINK, UNDERSTAND OUR WORLD AND OUR LANGUAGEELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE-GRAMMAR, SYSTEM OF RULES THAT GOVERN OUR EXPRESSION-PHONOLOGY, SOUNDS TO WORDS-SYNTAX, HOW WORDS AND PHRASES ARE CONSTRUCTED-SEMANTICS, MEANING OF WORDSLANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT-BABYS BABBLE, 3 MONTHS TO A YEAR-VOCALIZE ALL POSSIBLE SOUNDS IN ALL LANGUAGE-DEAF CHILDREN BABBLE-OTHER LANGUAGE SOUNDS DISSAPEAR BY AGE ONE-AFTER ONE YEAR, PUT WORDS TOGETHER TO COMMUNICATE-2 YEAR OLD HAS 250 WORD VOCABULARY-2 12 YEAR OLD, SEVERAL HUNDRED-5 YEAR OLD HAS LEARNED BASIC RULES OF GRAMMARLEARNING- THEORY APPROACH-CONDITIONING & RIENFORCEMENT-BABBLING, ADULTS RIENFORCE CERTAIN SOUNDS-SHAPES THE CHILDS SPEECHNOAM CHOMSKY-INATE MECHANISM, BORN WITH A LINGUISTIC ABILITY THAT FUNCTIONS AS A RESULT OF MATURATION

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