To understand the changes the Renaissance produced, it helps to review what European society was like before it arrived. The time period before the Renaissance is usually called he Middle Ages , which stretched from the fall of the Roman Empire around 500 CE to about 1350. During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catch lick Church and the Pope were the primary players in Europe. The custodians of culture – that is, the people who owned most of the books and made handwritten copies of the Bible – were priests who often lived a closed existence inside the walls of monasteries.
School s were few. Illiteracy was widespread. Most of the population, more than 85 percent, was peasant farmers called serfs who worked for a lord and his estate. Serfs were little more than slaves. Both serfs and their masters looked to the Catch lick Church and the Bible to explain the world. The art and literature that existed focused on Jesus Christ and sin. In the asses, important changes began to happen. Improved farming methods helped peasants become more self-sufficient. More and more serfs gained their freedom and no longer depended on lord s.
Some freed serfs migrated to towns, where they took up trades. The nun these people needed to have an education to effectively carry on their work, literacy spread. Eventually, educated people began to question the teachings of the Church. A movement called humanism developed, which praised the beauty and intelligence of the individual. As more people became educated, human ism worked its way into the arts, literature, the sciences, and medicine. The early Renaissance was especially vigor us in the city-states of Italy – place s like Rome , Venice, Florence, and Milan.
The invention of the printing press in the mid-asses gave the Re nuisance and humanism even more momentum. Initially, the Remains seance was an upper-middle class movement, but thank s to the mechanization of printing, shopkeepers and street sweepers were able ewe ideas spreading acre ss Europe. As a result, people started to look at themselves in a new way. But what, exactly, was this new way? Examine the documents that follow and answer the question: How did the Renaissance change man ‘s view of man ? 435 Background Essay Questions 1 . What is the meaning of the word “renaissance”?
Describe the time period known as the Renaissance. 2. In general terms, how would you describe the Middle Ages? 3. Why did educate on start to increase during the BOOS? 4. Why was the printing press so important to the spread of the Arena seance and animist thinking? 5. Define these term s: Middle Ages monasteries illiteracy serfs humanism 1324 CE – Mans MUSM begins HaJJ to Mecca. 1433 – Sheen He makes a final voyage to Africa. 1453 – Byzantine Empire falls. 1455 – Gutenberg prints 180 Bibles. 1503 – Leonardo dad Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. 1601 – Shakespeare writes Hamlet. 37 Understanding the Question and Pre-Bucketing Understanding the Question 1 . What is the analytical question asked by this Mini-Q? 2. What terms in the question need to be defined? 3. Rewrite the question in your own words. Pre-Bucketing Directions: Using any clues from the Mini-Q question and the document title s on the cover page , create possible analytical categories and label the buckets. 0 201 1 The DB project 439 Document A Sources: Images: Madonna Enthroned Between Two Angels by Disco did Obnoxiousness; Mona Lisa by Leonardo dad Vinci.
Text: Theodore Arab, The Last Days of the Renaissance & The March to Modernity, Basic Books, 2006. Note: The painting on the left was done in the late asses by the Italian artist Disco did Obnoxiousness. During the Middle Ages, most paintings had religious subject matter. The painting on the eight, the Mona Lisa, was made by the Renaissance artist and scholar Leonardo dad Vinci in the early asses. The evidence of the break with medieval culture comes from the visual arts. It] was the essence of the Renaissance One begins to know the names of the natural folds in drapery, and three-dimensional figures; and one begins to notice the emphasis on symbolic representation giving way to depictions of recognizable scenes the new artistic styles would echo the broader movements and interests of the new age Neither the techniques nor the forms of artistic expression were to be the same again. Document Analysis 1 . What were the names of the artists who created these two paintings and when was each painted? 1st artist -2nd artist Date painted -Date painted 2.
Which of the two paintings is a Renaissance painting? 3. Using hints from the text excerpt, describe at least three ways in which the paintings are different. 4. How do these two paintings show that, during the Renaissance, man’s view of man was changing? 441 Document B Source: Excerpt from an English play called Everyman , written by an unknown author in 1485. Note: Though written in 1485, which was during the Renaissance period , Hess lines carry a message right out of the Middle Ages. Source: Excerpt from Act II, Scene II of Hamlet by William Shakespeare, 1601. 1.
Who is Everyman? 2. How do Everyman ideas about sin change as he gets older? 3. Who is the Heaven- King and what is the “general reckoning”? 4. What does Shakespeare mean when he says, “What a piece of work is a man! ” ? 6. How do these two passages show how the Renaissance changed man ‘s view of man? 0 2011 The DB project Renaissance Mini-O Document C Source: Drawings of the universe by Claudia Ptolemy (circa 100 CE) and Nicolas Copernicus (circa 1500). Note: Ptolemy (toll-eh-MME) was a Roman astronomer who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, about 100 years after the time of Jesus.
He developed a theory of the universe that was adopted by most scholars during the Middle Ages. The POI sis astronomer Nicolas Copernicus lived from 1473 to 1543. Relying mostly on mathematics, he developed a very different understanding of the universe. Geocentric means “earth-centered” and heliocentric means “sun-centered. ” The Geocentric Universe of Ptolemy The Heliocentric Universe of Copernicus (Solid) in his diagram? 2. According to Copernicus diagram, how does the universe work? . The ideas of Copernicus were upsetting to the Catholic Church. What might explain this? 4.
How might the ideas of Copernicus have influenced the way people thought about the nature of man and man’s place in the universe? 445 Document D Source: A woodcut called “Zodiac Man” from a book by German astronomer Johann Registrations, 1 512, and a woodcut from the anatomy book On the Makeup of the Human Body by Belgian physician Andrea Vesuvius,1 543. Note: The image on the left reflects the Middle Ages belief that each sign of the zodiac” governed a certain part of the body. For example , the constellation of stars called Aries the Ram controlled the head ; Sagittarius the Archer con trolled the thighs.
The illustration on the right was based on the research done by Andrea Vesuvius , who dissected human corpses to better explain the human body to his medical students. “The zodiac is a band of 12 groups of constellations (stars) that stretch across the sky. 1. Which of the drawings is more real stick? Explain. 2. During medieval times, what was widely believed to control the health and well being of different parts of the body? Give an example. 3. What do you suppose Vesuvius thought of the zodiac theory of anatomy ? 4 .
How did Vesuvius get hi s information about the makeup of the human body ? 5. How does this document show how the Renaissance changed man’s view of man ? 0 2011 The O BOB project Bucketing – Getting Ready to Write Bucketing Look over all the documents and organize them into your final buckets. Write labels under each bucket and place the letters of the documents in the buckets where they belong. Plan out either a three- or four- body paragraph essay. Thesis Development and Road Map On the chicken foot below, write your thesis and your road map.
Your thesis is always an opinion that answer s the Mini-Q question. The road map is created from your bucket labels and lists the topic areas you will examine in order to prove your thesis s. 449 From Thesis to Essay Writing Mini-Q Essay Outline Guide Working Title Paragraph #1 Grabber Background Stating the question with key terms defined Thesis and road map Paragraph #2 Baby The sis for bucket one Evidence: supporting detail from documents with document citation Argument: connecting evidence to the thesis Paragraph #3 Baby The sis for bucket two Evidence Argument